What are the unintended impact of ecosystem preservation on the endangered species ?

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Introduction

Conservational procedures have been enacted in India to preserve wildlife. As an outcome, the usual environment of several threatened/endangered species may have been safe. The animals, many of which stay are threatened or endangered are often killed in retaliation or to ‘prevent’ future conflicts.[1]In such a state, it is essential to manage the struggle with speed & accuracy in order to avoid panic, injuries or deaths. Earlier India’s freedom in 1947, numerous environmental legislatures happened although the actual push for carrying about a sharp context originated afterward the UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972). In the impact of this pronouncement, the ‘National Council for Environmental Policy and Planning’ inside the Branch of Science and Technology which was established in 1972.  There has been a revolution in the customarily-held insight that there is an interchange among environmental quality and financial growth as individuals have come to believe that the two are essentially complementary. One of the issues pertaining to the extinction of the endangered species is that People’s actions modify several habitats, which performances as a disadvantage to wildlife.

The research comprises of the critical analysis of Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 for the resolution of the problem of conflict between human and animal specifically Leopard. The purpose to select Leopard as the focus of the study is that there is a conflict between the humans and the animals. In the last decade, leopard conflict had reached serious levels, it is analyzed that 67 leopard attacks between 1993 and 2003 in Maharashtra spread over an area of 4,100 sq. km and 329 leopard attacks between 2004 and 2014 in Himachal Pradesh spread over an area of 19,100 sq. km.[2]

On January’31st’2019 a wild leopard caused a panic in Jalandhar, Punjab.[3] It was on the prowl for 12 hours before being caught by forest officials, the leopard showed up in someone’s house and attempts to capture it only pissed it off and made it go on the attack. Which makes the facts clear that humans and animals have a battle between them and the consequence of this struggle is the intense issue in numerous parts of India. Numerous individuals lose their products, domesticated animals, property (Loss of and here and there their lives. The Species are threatened or endangered and are often killed in retaliation or to avert upcoming conflicts.)[4]

The human and leopard conflict in the human-controlled scenes in Uttarakhand has both scopes; of human safety and livings that are affected due to attacks on individuals and cattle by leopards on one indicator, as well as leopard welfare and conservation on the other hand.

The legislative framework for Biodiversity Conversation

This is apparent from the information that recently the Parliament by the Union ministry of environment and forests[5], that at least 260 leopards were poached in India between 2015 and 2018. These figures are sufficiently horrifying, more awful, wildlife associations trust that the number is a lot higher. On the off chance that these disclosures evoke shock, that is just not out of the ordinary, for, in addition to other things, it features the vulnerable sides that illuminate the general population talk on protection in India.[6]It is not only seen in the state but to allow the capitals for preservation activities the apex court has pulled up the Centre for “sitting” on the financial capitals worth Rs 77,000 crore meant for environmental protection, but the amounts released are unequally distributed. The purpose that the portion directed concerning the protection of leopards and other animals measured to be lower down in other preservation of the food chain that will be insignificant, therefore having a serious influence on the value of the protection device on the ground.[7]

If we look closely to the main reason for the extinction of threatened or endangered species, then we would be able to find out the reason that Humans are the cause behind such cruelty. The Incident took place in the outskirts of a tiger reserve in Maharashtra where two leopard cubs were harassed by the local villagers.[8] We can clearly see that there is no humanity, there is a lack of basic education, which must be taught to the budding youth.

Leopards are progressively wandering into urban communities, towns, and villages in India. With people grabbing each piece of scope left, it has turned out to be difficult for the leopards to discover safe house and sustenance. The versatile creatures in this manner look for simple prey in steers or dally around the town garbage to get something to eat. The greater part of them additionally realize the class to stay covered up, yet occasionally the cover is blown. Stoned, pelted, sedated and executed, the wildlife is being focused by people for endeavoring to make do in a human pervaded the world.[9]

Initiatives taken by the government of India to protect the endangered species

To conserve the wildlife and protecting the endangered species, India has adopted the wildlife Protection Act 1972[10], the act talks about the prohibition in trade in rare. The government at the central level will assist the state government for firming the managerial and protection of the wildlife, it also controls the poaching and illegal trading. The act has been amended in 2002 for better understanding and effective provisions for the endangered species.  The Act adopts a two-branched protection strategy; Stated endangered species are safe irrespective of place, and all classes are safe and sheltered in quantified areas. The Act has been amended in 2002.[11]

The Government of India runs several projects like the Project Tiger, Project Elephant, The Indian Crocodile Conservation Project and Action Plan for the Vulture Conservation in India. Over the period, there are significant changes that have taken place in the Wildlife Act for the protection of the species through the system of the protected areas. 

The policy of the environmental laws as a result of a growing awareness of the captivating need to re-establish the serious biological disparities presented by the imposed-on nature by man. The State to which the biological uneven characters and the resulting ecological harm have come to is alarming to the point that except if quick, decided and powerful advances were taken, the harm may end up irreversibly. The Central Government, for the purpose of this act, may appoint a Chief Wild Life Warden and generals and workers as may be essential.

Classification of the species according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)[12]

According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)[13] , they have compiled a list called “Red Data Book”, where “Red” Symbolizes Danger that the species are presently experiencing. By going by the list and the statistics, there are 76 extinct, 190 species were critically endangered, 500 engendered, around 3109 are the least concern.  Laying emphasis on India, the statistics show the important species such as The Royal Bengal Tiger (Project Tiger), Gangetic River Dolphin, Project Elephant, Snow Leopard. The species that are critically endangered are Kashmir Stag, Pygmy hog, Sumatran Rhino, etc.

In case WWF v. Union of India[14], the supreme court has directed the state, which had not constituted the wildlife advisory board, to constitute it within two months. The Court also directed in this case that State Governments, which had failed to appoint Wild Life Wardens, should appoint Wardens for all the zones within the State. No person shall hunt any wild animal stated in Schedules 1, 2 and 3 of the Act. 

Therefore, by analyzing the journals, news articles, and some research papers, I have understood the working of the schemes and campaigns that are held by the governments for making people aware about the importance of the endangered species. India has effectively worked for conserving[15] the endangered species. If we can compare the changes then we can see that India has progressed a lot. Earlier Leopards and other species were threatened by illegal killing for their skins and other body parts used for traditional rituals, extensive bushmeat poaching, and poorly accomplished trophy hunting. Humans are also responsible for the extinction of the endangered species, especially in villages, it is also perceived that the lack of indoor sanitation facilities has often been accredited as a cause for leopard attacks, especially on women at dawn and dusk. In India diverse views of people concerning wildlife conservation & political unpredictability results in wildlife conservation problems. This is one of the most reasons of the human-wildlife conflict. In regions of high clash force, the dread of a leopard was seen reliably over all individuals. There are researches and news articles, where, the mother leopard goes to find the food for the cubs, the villagers take pictures with the cub by teasing them and hurting them, which later would result in the injury to the leopards and humans as well, for this matter, not only leopards are attacked by the humans, but, animals such as elephants[16] are also attacked by the people, where elephants were earlier been regarded as a cultural icon.

End Notes

[1] The Independent. (2019). Indian villagers hurl firebombs at elephant and calf ‘for damaging their crops’. [Online] Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-elephant-firebombs-human-conflict-crops-endangered-bishnupur-a8730261.html  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[2]The Hindu. (2019). Decoding patterns of lion, tiger and leopard attacks on humans. [online] Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/decoding-patterns-of-lion-tiger-and-leopard-attacks-on-humans/article26006897.ece  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[3]BBC News. (2019). Big cat attack. [online] Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-asia-47093902/wild-leopard-attacks-indian-village  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[4]Anon, (2019). [online] Available at: http://wwf.panda.org/knowledge_hub/endangered_species/  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[5]http://envfor.nic.in/

[6]Telegraphindia.com. (2019). Leopards neglected due to focus on more ‘iconic’ animals. [online] Available at: https://www.telegraphindia.com/opinion/leopards-neglected-due-to-focus-on-conservation-of-more-iconic-endangered-animals-such-as-tigers-lions-and-elephants/cid/1680751  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[7] Ibid.

[8] Downtoearth.org.in. (2019). Two leopard cubs harassed by residents in Maharashtra tiger reserve; one dies. [online] Available at: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/two-leopard-cubs-harassed-by-residents-in-maharashtra-tiger-reserve-one-dies-62741  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[9] Gupta, A., Banerjee, S. and Naresh, R. (2019). India’s Endangered – Voice of the Precious Few. [online] Indiasendangered.com. Available at: http://indiasendangered.com/  [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].

[10] Passed by the Parliament under article 252 of the Constitution in line with eleven States, was expected to give a thorough national lawful structure for Wild Life Protection.

[11] The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 got the consent of the President on January 17, 2003, and distributed in the Gazette of India, Extra., Part II, Section 1, dated twentieth January,1-21(2003), No. 17.

[12]IUCN. (2019). International Union for Conservation of Nature – IUCN. [online] Available at: https://www.iucn.org/  [Accessed 2 Feb. 2019].

[13] Ibid

[14] (1997) (6) SCALE 9 (SP), See also A.I.R. 1999 S.C. 353; (1998) 9 SCC 623

[15] News, C. and News, M. (2019). ‘India has successfully conserved 73 endangered species’ – Times of India. [online] The Times of India. Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mysuru/india-has-successfully-conserved-73-endangered-species/articleshow/67427001.cms  [Accessed 2 Feb. 2019].

[16] The Independent. (2019). Indian villagers hurl firebombs at elephant and calf ‘for damaging their crops’. [online] Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-elephant-firebombs-human-conflict-crops-endangered-bishnupur-a8730261.html  [Accessed 2 Feb. 2019].


Purvat Wali

BBA LLB
Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA
email: [email protected]

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